From UPIC to IanniX
Development of a three-dimensional graphic, open source environment for music, sound and beyond
Xenakis, CEMAMu and the UPIC
In 1966, Iannis Xenakis constituted informally the EMAMu (Équipe de Mathématique et Automatique Musicales), a group whose activities led to the formal establishment in 1972 of the Centre d’Etudes de Mathématique et Automatique Musicales (CEMAMu), an interdisciplinary research centre in Paris for the development of a new pedagogy focused on the UPIC (Unité Polyagogique Informatique du CEMAMu), an idiosyncratic system for computer music composition through drawing (Colyer 1986).
Indeed, the pedagogical issue in computer music was fundamental and urgent at a time when traditional theoretical tools — the Western music theory and notation developed over the course of many centuries — were becoming increasingly inadequate in responding to or representing the unprecedented growth of new practices and interests encountered in the new musical works of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Even today, in computer music notation and in electronic music in general, there is little to no agreement on the choice of a grammatical systematic priority that can be universally codified and incontestably represented by a symbol- or graphic-based notation. Whereas traditional notation can hardly be separated from its instrumental reference, and is the result of centuries-old historical and semiotic stratification, the notation of electronic music and sound raises many issues in the realm of semiographic invention. In this case, the multitude of texts that are produced is therefore also the result of an ex novo creation of linguistic signs which reveal a wide range of semiotic production possibilities (Valle 2002).
The development of UPIC as a compositional and pedagogical tool finds its roots in Xenakis’ concept of designing the musical construction through a generalized notation capable of expressing sound characteristics in mathematical terms, thus using graphical and numerical elements — that are essential for the dialogue with computers (Xenakis 1992). Already adopted starting in 1953 by Xenakis himself for instrumental music composition and translated into traditional notation for performers, in 1976 this notation system was implemented as a graphical interface in the UPIC and in January 1977 the UPIC was completed (IanniX Association 2012). As the users of the system could execute work entirely without performers or assistants, from sketches of creative ideas to their production and representation in electronic sound, UPIC offered the advantage of “allowing the composer to work in his individual way directly — no intervention or interposition of any person between his ideas and the result” (Colyer 1986, 317).
The UPIC system originally included an electromagnetic pen for drawing, a large graphic tablet that represented a page of music, and a computer with specific hardware for processing data and generating electronic sounds (Fig. 1). The peculiarity of this system consisted in its capability to perform graphic score editing as well as sound synthesis features with a real-time operation.
In 1990, a commodity hardware version of UPIC was presented at the International Computer Music Conference and then commercialized in the following year. The new UPIC system was based on an increased human-machine interaction and the integration of the score design features into the software. Practically speaking, the digital drawing tablet and electromagnetic pen were replaced by a computer screen and a mouse. Furthermore, through a redesigned interface, the user could store, edit, play and record sounds and related attributes defined with a poly-agogic notation on different levels, from macro- to micro-form: pages, events, envelopes and waveforms could be drawn on the screen by means of a two-dimensional representation of parameters as a function of time (Marino, Raczinski and Serra 1993).
The UPIC score is formed by a series of notes called “arcs”, that is to say curves defined in terms of frequency that develop in the time domain with continuous variations (glissando) and comprise a set of attributes, as mentioned above. The curves can be drawn either freehand or through the use of default drawing modes in order to obtain quantified values of frequency and duration (Fig. 2). “In this way the notion of arc is an extension of the Classical notion of note” (Ibid., 250). In addition, arcs can be grouped together as needed up to a maximum of 4000 elements per page, which represents the entire sequence of individual sound events.
As the interactive chronology of UPIC unfolds (Centre Iannis Xenakis 2015), various tools and devices participate actively in the same process of technological evolution and democratization that led UPIC to a prototype of software-only version in 2001 — the UPIX — after passing through a continuous update of its design.
After Xenakis’ death in 2001, the development of UPIX stopped (Bourotte 2012). At that time, Thierry Coduys (La Kitchen), with the collaboration of Adrien Levèfre (Adlef) and Gérard Pape (CCMIX), and supported by the French Ministry of Culture, started to develop IanniX. On the one hand, the new software would be based on the UPIC, but on the other hand it would have become an advanced interface devoted to a wider creative field by integrating current technological developments and a strong level of abstraction.
What is IanniX?
IanniX is a “graphical real-time open source sequencer for digital art” (IanniX website). Through various communication protocols, it synchronizes punctual events as well as continuous data to external environments (e.g., Pure data, Processing) and hardware such as MIDI devices and microcontroller boards.
The strong relation between sound and visual content that emerges through the use of IanniX has often been a stimulus to reveal the score as an integral part of the work (IanniX Association 2016). In this sense, IanniX has been used in audiovisual works as a tool for controlling parameters and showing their graphical representation to the public, or even to facilitate the formal intelligibility of a work (Scordato 2014).
In addition to its use for scoring musical and sonic works, specific usages of IanniX include the control of sound spatialization, both for the definition of virtual sound trajectories (Manaris and Stoudenmier 2015) and the routing of audio signals in complex sound projection systems. Moreover, IanniX has been employed in sonification processes (Bellona 2013). 2[2. See, for example, the author’s interactive installation Studio per una Rete (Study for a Network), in which visitors can call up sounds and change the visualization of the Barcelona metro map via a graphical interface.]
Classification of IanniX Scores
In relation to their functionality, and to the interaction mode with third-party software and compatible devices, six types of scores have been recognized (Coduys and Jacquemin 2014):
- Control score. Autonomous, reproducible and determinist (similar to the operation of UPIC), once the control score has been set, the sequencer produces a data output for controlling further processes (e.g., sound synthesis, sampling and spatialization).
- Reactive score. Reacting to external stimuli without generating any output of control data, the primary purposes of the reactive score are visualization and graphical representation of data received from programming environments and devices (e.g., a tridimensional trajectory detected by a motion capture device, or the deformation of a curve expressed by a parametric equation).
- Interactive score. Being based on human-machine or machine-machine interaction, the interactive score involves the cooperation between various entities. In this context, IanniX may act as a mapping device but also introduces compositional and temporal dimensions; a bi-directional data stream is involved.
- Retroactive score. IanniX can control itself, that is to say that the output related to an object can be reinserted into the system as an input command to control either the sequencer or another object; in some cases, this may imply recursion or deformation of the score as a function of time.
In the definition of a score, every IanniX object has a series of general attributes that are customizable by the user: ID, group ID, activation status, thickness / size, label, colour, texture, 3D position (only for curves and triggers) and output messages (only for cursors and triggers). Furthermore, every object type holds specific properties, functions and attributes.
In IanniX vocabulary, a curve is a spatial trajectory defined by a set of points that establish a sequence of sections joined together. Each section can take three forms: a line segment, a cubic Bézier curve or an ellipse. Additionally, curves can be generated by mathematical equations (Fig. 5).
As vectors, IanniX curves have certain properties, such as being interpolable, scalable and resampleable. Operations on curves and their single points can be done from the Inspector menu or with direct manipulation in the visualization window, as well as through action-equivalent scripts.
Curves can assume different functions in a score: when they are linked to one or more cursors, they constitute their support by defining the cursor’s path; in other circumstances, such as in reactive scores, curves can simply represent a graphical artefact. Also, when curves eventually intersect a cursor linked to another curve, they can describe the evolution over time of values read by such cursor. Unlike cursors and triggers, in fact, curves do not send any message.
Whereas IanniX acts as a global sequencer through its Transport panel, single cursors instead perform local sequencing functions and can be considered as “read heads” of curve values and triggers. For this reason, they represent the core of the poly-temporal feature.
Implications of poly-temporality involve specific space-time relations; for instance, they can be experienced in the score implementation of Xenakis’ Metastaseis (Fig. 6), which is included in the IanniX software examples.
By moving along curves according to time, cursors are able to output a set of continuous messages related to a tridimensional portion of the score included in their range, which is defined in terms of width and depth. For example, they can report their position over time as well as values related to colliding curves and triggers. An important aspect to consider when cursors send positioning values is the coordinate mapping (Fig. 7). Included in the Inspector menu, this feature allows the user to rescale the virtual space of the score to the desired range of values needed by the receiver for controlling a specific parameter (e.g., sound frequency or amplitude).
Cursor movement is subject to global transport controls. However, cursors have several specific attributes that define their own behaviour in the score: width, depth, speed / length, loop pattern, easing curve and offset; values are measured in seconds according to a space-time reference displayed as a grid. By default, a grid unit corresponds to one second in time sequencing, but this is of course user-configurable.
In their default appearance, triggers are spherical elements with the capability to send individual messages when they are “hit” by a cursor (Fig. 8). In a sense, they can be compared to musical notes, as they involve discrete events in time.
For example, triggers can produce MIDI note messages in order to play a sequence of sounds on an external MIDI device. In this case, the trigger-specific duration [s] attribute should be set for each note according to needs.
In addition, the fact that triggers are placed in a tridimensional spatial system inherently encourages the user to explore unconventional and whimsical ways of conceiving a score (Fig. 9).
However, triggers are able to control any sort of event, from operations on data flow to the final media, depending on the software or hardware device linked to IanniX, of course.
As a kind of “higher-order UPIC in hyperspace” (Hoffmann 2011, 5) with a considerable technical advantage of operational openness over a monolithic design, IanniX offers a range of interesting applications that extend across a wide range of digital practices. In fact, its operation is based on the reception of commands for the creation and management of score data, as well as on the simultaneous transmission of score-related messages for controlling a third-party device. Therefore, it implements various communication protocols and technologies (OSC, raw UDP, TCP, WebSocket, HTTP, MIDI, Syphon and serial port communication) in order to support the interfacing with numerous software and hardware.
Even if its current graphical user interface contains symbolic limitations that do not make it as flexible as a graphic design application as some users might desire, in the context of experimental notation and sequencing programmes, IanniX is capable of providing new ways of performing graphic information (Gottfried 2015) and drawing sound events (Bourotte 2012) with an essential notation system suitable for the definition of discrete and continuous values.
With its openness and flexibility, and a strong level of abstraction, the system is able to manage digital information bidirectionally in extremely diverse applications. The use of IanniX is not limited to sound and music but is also applicable in design and mixed technology contexts, and beyond. Indeed, as-yet unexplored applications include the design of human-computer interfaces, the communication with microcontroller boards and the visualization of digital data.
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